neon garden in flight
a spinning vortex
circling till the end of time.
Historical fiction must be authentic in order to pull the reader in, so that writers who create works in this genre should consider how their work can be as authentic as possible. In order to effectively emulate specific worlds in historical fiction, the writer must research and know the world that they are trying to recreate because members of specific societies and cultures have unique ways of interacting with their environment and each other.
In writing historical fiction, there are a number of ways that authors can add authenticity to their work; however, I will focus on four essential qualities that make characters and their interactions more genuine. In order to achieve authenticity, and therefore believability, a work must: use appropriate language for the time period, be correct in the way characters were able (or unable) to speak/interact with each other in terms of class, race, gender, etc, make sure not to insert contemporary ways of thinking or behavior into an era in which such behavior/interaction was unheard of, and make sure that the backdrop with which characters will interact with is historically accurate. Possession by A.S. Byatt, Feig by Richard Bank, The Bridge of San Luis Rey by Thornton Wilder, and Immortal by Traci Slatton are all books that adhere to these characteristics.
In the following, paragraph from Byatt’s Possession, we see many of the requisites for authentic interaction in historical fiction. Two fictional poets, one male and the other female, communicate with each other through letters, and their interaction speaks to the time period, emulating how men and women would have communicated with each other in the Victorian era.
My dear Friend,
If I address you So – it is for the Last Time as well as for the First. We have rushed down a Slope – I at least have rushed – where we might have descended more circumspectly – or Not at All. It has been borne in upon me that there are dangers in our continued conversation – I fear I lack delicacy in saying so – I see no good way out indeed – I reproach you with nothing – not myself neither – unless with an indiscreet confessional – and of what then – that I loved my father, and was set upon writing an epic? But the world would not look well upon such letters – between a woman living in a shared solitude as I do – and a man – even if that man were a great and wise poet” (Byatt, 184).
In this fictional letter, we see quite a few elements of authenticity. The word choice is specific, as well as distinct from contemporary language. The female poet, writing the letter, refers to a lack of delicacy, something having been borne, reproaching another, among other similar and specific markers of language. It would be uncommon to hear anyone speaking like this today.
Noting that the “world would not look well upon such letters – between a man and a woman living in a shared solitude as I do,” this work of fiction also tells us the way men and women interacted with each other, as well as the way that people interacted with their society. In this passage we see a woman who is careful with the way she interacts with others for fear of societal disapproval. It is clear that Byatt was able to mirror the world in which her story is situated by researching, understanding, and then creating language, dialogue, and word usage that emulated the time in question.
If the writer of this passage did not have a better understanding of how men and women interacted with each other in this time, then they could have imposed their contemporary view of gender relations into the writing. If this was the case, then maybe the two poets would have gone out on a date at a local coffee shop. This type of scene would have destroyed the believability of the story. Luckily, in Possession, the writer made sure that characters acted in a way that makes sense for the time period in question.
Consider another passage taken from Traci Slatton’s Immortal:
I had never before held a sheet of paper, which was far too precious for a street urchin. In the meantime, when I went out into Florence, I sought information about Master Giotto. He had said he would return and wanted to see me, and I believed him. He had an honor about him that was obvious even to a mongrel like me. When he came back I wanted to impress him with my knowledge of his incomparable work. On a cold day after Christmas, I went to the monk Friar Pietro, who had once taken me into the Church Ognissanti to show me the glorius Madonna panel that Giotto had painted there.
“Asperges me, Domine, hyssop, et mundabor: Lavabis me, et super nivem dealbabor. Misere mei, Deus, Secundum Magnam Misericordium Tuam,” I called brightly, when I spied him sweeping the path outside the austere stone façade of the old church of Santa Maria Maggiore…..
In this passage, we see some of the same elements that make historical fiction authentic. The author acquaints the reader with the time period in question, and we see that it is a time where you could talk to a monk one minute and a master artist in the next. It was also a time when everyone, even the poor, were familiar with Latin because the church was a central part of their lives.
Slatton also shows us how the different classes were treated in this time. The phrase Master Giotto means more than just master artist. It is a marker of his rank in society. On the other hand, the main character, who is sometimes called Luca Bastardo (bastard) refers to himself as a “mongrel.” The reader can infer that this is Luca’s view of himself after he’s internalized his own treatment in society.
So, words and how they are used are definitely important. The importance of words extends to other languages when a writer may choose to use an alternate to English. This is done to add depth in the descriptions thereby making the story more authentic. In the above example, we see the writer use Latin to show that individuals living in this time were more familiar with the language. What people call each other and how they describe or refer to themselves can also tell us a lot about the time period in question.
Writers should keep the following in mind when describing their specific time period: how would a specific character be seen by the world, would this person be powerful or powerless, strong or weak, knowledgeable or ignorant, how would the world react to this person, based on what you know about the time period in question, would people find it inappropriate to make fun of someone because they – have a disability, don’t have parents, are different in some way, or would the society in question find it to be typical to call someone “bastardo” or “village idiot,” etc? Members of society can be dehumanized, and this fact is something that is important to the narrative.
Richard Bank’s Feig is a book that describes, in detail, the dehumanization of people. It effectively utilizes elements that are necessary for authentic historical fiction. Consider the following paragraph.
“It was sometime late in May 1944…We were put to work outside Budapest. Conditions were very harsh, you know. We slept on the ground. Nothing over our heads. If it rained, we got wet….the gendarmes fed us two meal a day – gruel in the morning and soup with bits of meat at night. We also were given stale bread that you soaked in the soup to soften it….But I was hungry then, David. Always, I was hungry.” (Bank 32).
Accurately situating the characters within their time period and setting, the author tells us that they are working in Budapest and dealing with harsh conditions. The gendarmes, which is the correct historical term, feed the prisoners gruel and stale bread. Bank adds a detail which make the character’s speech more believable; one can tell that Feig’s first language is not English because he inverts the placement of words and finishes sentences with phrases like “you know.” Instead of saying “I was always hungry,” Feig says “Always, I was hungry.” So, other important questions for a writer to ask are: where is this character from, how did this character grow up, does this character speak in a unique way, and what drives this character?
In order to write effective historical fiction ask yourself the preceding questions as well as: what conflicts did people face in their time, what did they eat, what nourishment or comfort was available to them, and were they speaking in a language that was not their first? Note that questions surrounding primary language can be particularly important in places like Europe where people often spoke and still speak more than one language. Language is just one of the things a writer should consider when trying to create an effective work of historical fiction.
So, this genre of fiction is unique in that the story has to be based in a setting and context that considers historical fact. To write historical fiction is to try to create a unique world within a past that actually existed, and the created world has to mirror a past that once was. Four specific actions can help a writer to make their historical fiction more believable. These include: using appropriate language for the time period, being correct in the way characters were able (or unable) to speak/interact with each other in terms of class, race, gender, etc, making sure not to insert contemporary ways of thinking or behavior into an era in which such behavior/interaction was unheard of, and making sure that the backdrop with which characters interact with is historically accurate. By following these guidelines, you will create characters, settings, and situations which will have your readers questioning whether they are reading fiction, or something that actually took place.
There are a variety of techniques that writers can use to add more precision and depth to their descriptions. Writers of all genres, including fiction, creative nonfiction, and poetry, can benefit from reading, observing, and understanding the techniques with which Thornton Wilder creates his full, detailed, and believable descriptions, but reading Wilder’sThe Bridge of San Luis Rey will be particularly beneficial to writers of historical fiction. Referring to events, situations, and actions that took place in a historical context, and having characters interact with their environment, in specific ways, are the techniques by which Wilder creates a believable setting as well as masterful descriptions.
In Wilder’s novel The Bridge of San Luis Rey, the author is able to effectively recreate the historical period in which the novel is situated, the early sixteenth century. The reader becomes fully immersed in the novel’s reality because the customs, culture, and characters’ interaction with their environment are expounded upon in exact detail.
Consider the following paragraph taken from the book:
“At last the time came to satisfy the supreme rite of Peruvian households looking forward to this event: she made the pilgrimage to the shrine of Santa Maria de Cluxambuqua. If there resided any efficacy in devotion at all, surely it lay in a visit to this great shrine. The ground had been holy through three religions; even before the Incan civilization distraught human beings had hugged the rocks and lashed themselves with whips to wring their will from the skies. Thither the Marquesa was carried in her chair, crossing the bridge of San Luis Rey and ascending up into the hills toward the city of large-girdled women, a tranquil town, slow-moving and slow-smiling; a city of cyrstal air, cold as the springs that fed its many fountains; a city of bells, soft and musical, and turned to carry on with one another the happiest quarrels. If anything turned out for disappointment in the town of Cluxambuqua the grief was somehow assimilated by the overwhelming immanence of the Andes and by the weather of quiet joy that flowed in and about the side-streets. No sooner did the Marquesa see from a distance the white walls of this town perched on the knees of the highest peaks than her fingers ceased turning the beads and the busy prayers of her fright were cut short on her lips,” (Wilder, 32).
A scene of striking detail is painted, and the reader finds that this world is one which is squarely situated in the past. It is a time in which people make pilgrimages to shrines, and place religious ritual at the center of their lives. Specific details show us a world that is simple, “slow-moving and slow smiling…a city of bells.”
Writers can create similarly detailed descriptions by knowing the time period about which they are writing. For those writing historical fiction, it is especially important to research and be well acquainted with the subject matter at hand. Not knowing much about the history of Argentina, I wouldn’t try to write historical fiction situated there; however, if I were to spend adequate time researching the area, and understanding the customs, practices, and history of Argentina, then I could consider writing about it.
In the following examples, notice how Wilder places us in the setting. For example, he uses a small detail, in the passage, by mentioning that it is a city of “large-girdled women.” Girdles are something from the past, and this detail is helpful in situating the reader in that past.
Wilder also moves his characters to interact with their environment, and each other, in specific ways. One of the novel’s central characters, the Marquesa de Montemayor, is carried on a chair across a bridge, an action that isn’t commonplace in the modern world. Historically, however; a greater distinction between classes existed. Society was broken up into an aristocracy and a slave class. In such a time, an aristocrat being carried around, on a chair, would have been more commonplace.
Wilder understands another important aspect of early sixteenth-century Peru, the time period in question, and uses this knowledge to enhance his writing. Although the scientific revolution had already started taking place in the early sixteenth century, most people did not have an understanding of science or the reasons behind everyday events or disasters, and this lack of information led to fear. Therefore, religion took a central importance in daily life because it was used to combat fear of the unknown. Understanding this, Wilder captures the essence of the interaction between religion and fear by showing the Marquesa’s stance towards events in her life. During the course of her pilgrimage, “no sooner did the Marquesa see from a distance the white walls of this town perched on the knees of the highest peaks than her fingers ceased turning the beads and the busy prayers of her fright were cut short on her lips.
However, the ways in which Wilder crafts his descriptions are not limited to use in historical fiction. These techniques are important, in one way or another, in other types of fiction as well as creative nonfiction. Although I don’t write fiction, the idea of using a specific context and well-thought-out details are still important to my writing. Keeping these methods in mind, Thornton Wilder created a unique, believable, and detailed world in The Bridge of San Luis Rey. It is a world so real that the reader will certainly be lost in their visit to it, and may choose to return time and again.
Wilder, Thornton. The Bridge of San Luis Rey. New York: Harper Collins. 2003.
Disasters and calamities, whether they are natural or man-made, create chaos and confusion. After experiencing or witnessing such disasters, the human response is to question how such events could take place. Those that once believed in an omnipotent God can come to believe that we live in a universe devoid of God, or one in which God does not care about humanity. The Holocaust was just such an event where the mass murder of millions was done with cold calculation, efficiency, and automation. Richard D. Bank’s novel, Feig, explores the lives of characters who were irrevocably changed by the Holocaust, either by experiencing it first hand or by growing up in homes where survivors: kept secrets, broke down privately, and shielded others from the horrors that they had experienced.
In the beginning of this novel, Philadelphia attorney David Gold meets Jacob Feig, a Holocaust Survivor, and a short time after their first meeting, Feig is accused of his wife’s murder. David decides to defend Feig, and when he is forced to learn about Feig’s past, he has no choice but to face his own. For David, learning more about Feig will change his life in profound ways, altering the way he sees the past and the way he lives his future.
Bank seamlessly weaves the stories of David Gold, his family’s past, and the life and trial of Jacob Feig into one novel, so that the reader experiences the interplay of three independent and compelling narratives. Reading Feig, one becomes thoroughly engrossed, so that every recollection, movement, or action becomes consequential, and through this story, the reader comes to remember the true meaning of friendship. The friendships, which form in the story, are not friendships of convenience or exigency. Rather, they are bonds that show the existence of something more profound, perhaps the existence of the human soul, which stirs even in the middle of madness.
This novel enlightens, reminding the reader that even in the midst of the worst tragedies, humanity can transcend, finding in others the strength that is needed to go on. It is a story which poignantly explores the bonds of family and friendship. Feig is revelatory, showing the reader: that everything is connected, that we belong to a larger family, and that sometimes friends can take monumental roles in our lives, placing them squarely within our family, the human family.
In order for a story to be successful, its writer must move readers by creating a sense of conflict and resolution. Prose must have conflict, which works up to a climax. The climax is the point after which the protagonist’s challenge resolves itself in one way or the other; characters’ lives will be simpler or more difficult, happy or sad, successful or failed as a result of what happens at this juncture.
We all face these moments, in our lives, whether they be getting a job, buying a house, getting married or divorced, or having children. These decisions and events are the forks in the road. Choosing one way over the other has profound and long-last effects on the way our lives unfold.
Since this ebb and flow mirrors life, the reader will naturally search for it in prose. It can be argued that fiction, or any writing for that matter, will not be convincing if it lacks this rhythmic movement. This essay will show how and why writers should create a variety of conflict and resolution in their work. Sometimes, a simple conflict, climax, and resolution scenario is not the most effective way to tell a story.
A story does not necessarily have to “build up” to a climax; this is to say that there does not need to be a linear progression into a climax. As some of the upcoming examples will demonstrate, the climax can sometimes be found in the beginning of a novel with the exposition, rising action, and falling action taking place later. Instead of one major climax, maybe the protagonist will be confronted by a group of conflicts and resolutions. This may be the case if the character is dealing with an issue which follows him or her throughout life. Perhaps the protagonist will deal with something that is isolating, or maybe a character has lived through something that does not allow that character to recover.
Although all novels have resolutions, it is important to note that not all resolutions are happy or convenient. Some may experience convenient resolutions to their conflicts while others do not. The fact that not all authors create resolutions that are convenient or “happy” makes these works more realistic and oftentimes more compelling. After all, in real life, not everything leads to a happy ending. Even in movies, it is oftentimes the more complicated story, without a happy ending, which is the most moving. Good examples of such movies are Million Dollar Baby, Titanic, and My Sister’s Keeper.
Thornton Wilder’s The Bridge of San Luis Rey is an important work to consider because in the beginning of the novel, the climax has already happened; an accident occurred on a well-known bridge, the bridge of San Luis Rey, and killed four of the book’s central characters. The writer goes on to consider the accident and what it means. Everything that happens from the beginning to the end of the story revolves around these deaths, the histories of those involved in the accident, and the characters’ lives before they died. The climax is the starting point of the novel and a skillfully drawn-out exposition and resolution make up the rest of the book. When dealing with profound subjects such as fate, and the nature of humanity, as Wilder does, it can make sense to have a nonlinear movement in the story.
Another example of a book with effectively creates conflicts, climaxes, and resolutions is Traci Slatton’s Immortal, which is a story of survival. The main character Luca is different from everyone else around him; many years elapse, but Luca, unlike others, ages very slowly. For as long as he can remember, Luca has lived on the streets. The overwhelming conflict in Luca’s life is his uniqueness; he hides and attempts to escape scrutiny but is scrutinized nonetheless, he searches for answers, which elude him, and he is isolated in a mortal world.
In Immortal, the reader is also introduced to a major conflict and climax in the beginning of the book. Luca is living on the street with a trusted companion, Massimo. Massimo betrays him, and this betrayal changes Luca’s life profoundly; after he is accused of theft, Luca is sent to live in a brothel where he is held prisoner and prostituted. The reader is shocked and drawn in immediately. Immortal is not a story in which the protagonist is trying to create an ordinary and fulfilling life; this resolution will evade him all his life. The purpose of his existence, to find understanding, will also evade him for most of his life. When dealing with a book that will not resolve conveniently or happily, it can be effective to introduce conflict right in the beginning of the story, as Slatton does in Immortal. This sets the reader up for the character’s bleak future, and sparse moments of happiness.
There are a variety of ways to create successful conflicts, climaxes, and resolutions in a story. Although it is thought that an exposition should lead to a climax, this does not always have to be the case. Writers can create a more convincing story by veering away from the simple conflict, climax -resolution formula. To figure out what works best, the writer should consider their story and create a conflict, climax, and resolution that are unique. Sometimes, an author may choose to have a major conflict or climax resolve in the beginning of the story like in The Bridge of San Luis Rey. This might be a good option for stories which will not necessarily have a convenient or happy resolution. Others may choose to have a conflict run throughout the story, as is the case with Immortal. This may also be a good idea for woks which will not have a happy or convenient ending. One of the best ways a writer can improve his or her judgment on what works best, is to read as much as possible. The more a writer reads, the more he or she will understand what type of exposition, conflict, climax, and resolution will work best for their work. The decision on how to work conflicts and resolutions into the story is unique to the story being told, and when done with careful thought, can make the story more profound, compelling, and interesting to the reader.