Essential Techniques of Storytelling in The Bridge of San Luis Rey by Ayesha F. Hamid

There are a variety of techniques that writers can use to add more precision and depth to their descriptions. Writers of all genres, including fiction, creative nonfiction, and poetry, can benefit from reading, observing, and understanding the techniques with which Thornton Wilder creates his full, detailed, and believable descriptions, but reading Wilder’sThe Bridge of San Luis Rey will be particularly beneficial to writers of historical fiction. Referring to events, situations, and actions that took place in a historical context, and having characters interact with their environment, in specific ways, are the techniques by which Wilder creates a believable setting as well as masterful descriptions.

In Wilder’s novel The Bridge of San Luis Rey, the author is able to effectively recreate the historical period in which the novel is situated, the early sixteenth century. The reader becomes fully immersed in the novel’s reality because the customs, culture, and characters’ interaction with their environment are expounded upon in exact detail.

Consider the following paragraph taken from the book:

“At last the time came to satisfy the supreme rite of Peruvian households looking forward to this event: she made the pilgrimage to the shrine of Santa Maria de Cluxambuqua. If there resided any efficacy in devotion at all, surely it lay in a visit to this great shrine. The ground had been holy through three religions; even before the Incan civilization distraught human beings had hugged the rocks and lashed themselves with whips to wring their will from the skies. Thither the Marquesa was carried in her chair, crossing the bridge of San Luis Rey and ascending up into the hills toward the city of large-girdled women, a tranquil town, slow-moving and slow-smiling; a city of cyrstal air, cold as the springs that fed its many fountains; a city of bells, soft and musical, and turned to carry on with one another the happiest quarrels. If anything turned out for disappointment in the town of Cluxambuqua the grief was somehow assimilated by the overwhelming immanence of the Andes and by the weather of quiet joy that flowed in and about the side-streets. No sooner did the Marquesa see from a distance the white walls of this town perched on the knees of the highest peaks than her fingers ceased turning the beads and the busy prayers of her fright were cut short on her lips,” (Wilder, 32).

A scene of striking detail is painted, and the reader finds that this world is one which is squarely situated in the past. It is a time in which people make pilgrimages to shrines, and place religious ritual at the center of their lives. Specific details show us a world that is simple, “slow-moving and slow smiling…a city of bells.”

Writers can create similarly detailed descriptions by knowing the time period about which they are writing. For those writing historical fiction, it is especially important to research and be well acquainted with the subject matter at hand. Not knowing much about the history of Argentina, I wouldn’t try to write historical fiction situated there; however, if I were to spend adequate time researching the area, and understanding the customs, practices, and history of Argentina, then I could consider writing about it.

In the following examples, notice how Wilder places us in the setting. For example, he uses a small detail, in the passage, by mentioning that it is a city of “large-girdled women.” Girdles are something from the past, and this detail is helpful in situating the reader in that past.

Wilder also moves his characters to interact with their environment, and each other, in specific ways. One of the novel’s central characters, the Marquesa de Montemayor, is carried on a chair across a bridge, an action that isn’t commonplace in the modern world. Historically, however; a greater distinction between classes existed. Society was broken up into an aristocracy and a slave class. In such a time, an aristocrat being carried around, on a chair, would have been more commonplace.

Wilder understands another important aspect of early sixteenth-century Peru, the time period in question, and uses this knowledge to enhance his writing. Although the scientific revolution had already started taking place in the early sixteenth century, most people did not have an understanding of science or the reasons behind everyday events or disasters, and this lack of information led to fear. Therefore, religion took a central importance in daily life because it was used to combat fear of the unknown. Understanding this, Wilder captures the essence of the interaction between religion and fear by showing the Marquesa’s stance towards events in her life. During the course of her pilgrimage, “no sooner did the Marquesa see from a distance the white walls of this town perched on the knees of the highest peaks than her fingers ceased turning the beads and the busy prayers of her fright were cut short on her lips.

However, the ways in which Wilder crafts his descriptions are not limited to use in historical fiction. These techniques are important, in one way or another, in other types of fiction as well as creative nonfiction. Although I don’t write fiction, the idea of using a specific context and well-thought-out details are still important to my writing. Keeping these methods in mind, Thornton Wilder created a unique, believable, and detailed world in The Bridge of San Luis Rey. It is a world so real that the reader will certainly be lost in their visit to it, and may choose to return time and again.

Bibliography

Wilder, Thornton. The Bridge of San Luis Rey. New York: Harper Collins. 2003.

Creating Successful Conflicts, Climaxes, and Resolutions by Ayesha F. Hamid

In order for a story to be successful, its writer must move readers by creating a sense of conflict and resolution.  The writing community agrees that prose must have conflict, which works up to a climax.  The climax is the point after which the protagonist’s challenge resolves itself in one way or the other; characters’ lives will be simpler or more difficult, happy or sad, successful or failed as a result of what happens at this juncture.  We all face these moments, in our lives, whether they be getting a job, buying a house, getting married or divorced, or having children.  These decisions and events are the forks in the road.  Choosing one way over the other has profound and long-last effects on the way our lives unfold.

Since this ebb and flow mirrors life, the reader will naturally search for it in prose.  It can be argued that fiction, or any writing for that matter, will not be convincing if it lacks this rhythmic movement.  This essay will show how and why writers should create a variety of conflict and resolution in their work.  Sometimes, a simple conflict, climax, and resolution scenario is not the most effective way to tell a story.

A story does not necessarily have to “build up” to a climax; this is to say that there does not need to be a linear progression into a climax. As some of the upcoming examples will demonstrate, the climax can sometimes be found in the beginning of a novel with the exposition, rising action, and falling action taking place later.  Instead of one major climax, maybe the protagonist will be confronted by a group of minor conflicts and resolutions.  This may be the case if the character is dealing with an issue which follows him or her throughout life.  Perhaps the protagonist will deal with something that is isolating, or maybe a character has lived through something that does not allow that character to recover.

I’ve explored the following books, which all create conflicts and resolutions with expertise.  Although all novels have resolutions, it is important to note that not all resolutions are happy or convenient.  Some may experience convenient resolutions to their conflicts while others do not.  The fact that not all authors create resolutions that are convenient or “happy” makes these works more realistic and oftentimes more compelling.  After all, in real life, not everything leads to a happy ending.  Even in movies, it is oftentimes the more complicated story, without a happy ending, which is the most moving.  Good examples of such movies are Million Dollar Baby, Titanic, and My Sister’s Keeper.

Thornton Wilder’s The Bridge of San Luis Rey is an important work to consider because in the beginning of the novel, the climax has already happened; an accident occurred on a well-known bridge, the bridge of San Luis Rey, and killed four of the book’s central characters.  The writer goes on to consider the accident and what it means.  Everything that happens from the beginning to the end of the story revolves around these deaths, the histories of those involved in the accident, and the characters’ lives before they died.  The climax is the starting point of the novel and a skillfully drawn-out exposition and resolution make up the rest of the book.  When dealing with profound subjects such as fate, and the nature of humanity, as Wilder does, it can make sense to have a nonlinear movement in the story.

Another example of a book with effectively creates conflicts, climaxes, and resolutions is Traci Slatton’s Immortal, which is a story of survival.  The main character Luca is different from everyone else around him; many years elapse, but Luca, unlike others, ages very slowly.  For as long as he can remember, Luca has lived on the streets.  The overwhelming conflict in Luca’s life is his uniqueness; he hides and attempts to escape scrutiny but is scrutinized nonetheless, he searches for answers, which elude him, and he is isolated in a mortal world.

In Immortal, the reader is also introduced to a major conflict and climax in the beginning of the book.  Luca is living on the street with a trusted companion, Massimo.  Massimo betrays him, and this betrayal changes Luca’s life profoundly; after he is accused of theft, Luca is sent to live in a brothel where he is held prisoner and prostituted.  The reader is shocked and drawn in immediately.  The author’s decision to place a major conflict right in the beginning of the book is a good one.  Immortal is not a story in which the protagonist is trying to create an ordinary and fulfilling life; this resolution will evade him all his life.  The purpose of his existence, to find understanding, will also evade him for most of his life.  When dealing with a book that will not resolve conveniently or happily, it can be effective to introduce conflict right in the beginning of the story, as Slatton does in Immortal.  This sets the reader up for the character’s bleak future, and sparse moments of happiness.

There are a variety of ways to create successful conflicts, climaxes, and resolutions in a story.  Although it is often taught that an exposition should lead to a climax, this does not always have to be the case.  Writers can create a more convincing story by veering away from the simple conflict, climax -resolution formula.  To figure out what works best, the writer should consider their story and create a conflict, climax, and resolution that are unique.  Sometimes, an author may choose to have a major conflict or climax resolve in the beginning of the story like in The Bridge of San Luis Rey. This might be a good option for stories which will not necessarily have a convenient or happy resolution.  Others may choose to have a conflict run throughout the story, as is the case with Immortal.  This may also be a good idea for woks which will not have a happy or convenient ending.  One of the best ways a writer can improve his or her judgment on what works best, is to read as much as possible.  The more a writer reads, the more he or she will understand what type of exposition, conflict, climax, and resolution will work best for their work.  The decision on how to work conflicts and resolutions into the story is unique to the story being told, and when done with careful thought, can make the story more profound, compelling, and interesting to the reader.